What is hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, is when the thyroid glanddoesn’t make enough thyroid hormonesto meet your body’s needs. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck. Thyroid hormones control the way your body toàn thân uses energy, so they affect nearly every organ in your body, even the way your heart beats. Without enough thyroid hormones, many of your body’s functions slow down.

Bạn đang xem: Why are we having so many earthquakes? has naturally occurring earthquake activity been increasing? does this mean a big one is going to hit? or we haven't had any earthquakes in a long time; does this mean that the pressure is building up for a

The thyroid is a small gland in your neck that makes thyroid hormones.

How common is hypothyroidism?

Nearly 5 out of 100 Americans ages 12 years & older have hypothyroidism, although most cases are mild or have few obvious symptoms.1

Who is more likely to lớn develop hypothyroidism?

Women are much more likely than men to lớn develop hypothyroidism. The disease is also more common among people older than age 60.1

You are more likely to lớn have hypothyroidism if you

had surgery or radioactive iodine to correct a thyroid problem have a family history of thyroid disease were pregnant in the past 6 months

Your thyroid is also more likely to be underactive if you have other health problems, including

Is hypothyroidism during pregnancy a problem?

Left untreated, hypothyroidism during pregnancycan affect both mother & baby. However, thyroid medicines can help prevent problems & are safe lớn take during pregnancy. Many women taking thyroid hormone medicine need a higher dose during pregnancy, so contact your doctor right away if you find out you’re pregnant.

What are the complications of hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can contribute khổng lồ high cholesterol. If you have high cholesterol, you should get tested for hypothyroidism. Rarely, severe untreated hypothyroidism may lead to lớn myxedema coma, an extreme form of hypothyroidism in which the body’s functions slow khổng lồ a life-threatening point. Myxedema coma requires immediate medical treatment.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism has many symptoms that can vary from person to person. Some common symptoms of hypothyroidism include

fatigue weight gain trouble tolerating cold joint và muscle pain dry skin or dry, thinning hair heavy or irregular menstrual periods or fertility problems slowed heart rate depression
Dry, thinning hair is one of many symptoms that might indicate hypothyroidism.

Because hypothyroidism develops slowly, you may not notice symptoms of the disease for months or even years.

Many of these symptoms, especially fatigue & weight gain, are common & do not necessarily mean you have a thyroid problem.

What causes hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism has several causes, including

congenital hypothyroidism, or hypothyroidism that is present at birth surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid radiation treatment of the thyroid some medicines

Less often, hypothyroidism is caused by too much or too little iodine in the diet or by disorders of the pituitary glandor hypothalamus.1 Iodine deficiency, however, is extremely rare in the United States.

Hashimoto’s disease

Hashimoto’s disease, an autoimmune disorder, is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. With this disease, your immune systemattacks the thyroid. The thyroid becomes inflamed & can’t make enough thyroid hormones.


Thyroiditis, an inflammation of your thyroid, causes stored thyroid hormone to leak out of your thyroid gland. At first, the leakage increases your blood’s hormone levels, leading lớn thyrotoxicosis, a condition in which thyroid hormone levels are too high. The thyrotoxicosis may last for many months. After that, your thyroid may become underactive and, over time, the condition may become permanent, requiring thyroid hooc môn replacement.

Three types of thyroiditis can cause thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism.2

Subacute thyroiditis involves a painfully inflamed & enlarged thyroid. Silent thyroiditis is painless, even though your thyroid may be enlarged. Experts think it is probably an autoimmune condition.

Congenital hypothyroidism

Some babies are born with a thyroid that is not fully developed or does not work properly. If untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to lớn intellectual disability and growth failure—when a baby doesn’t grow as expected. Early treatment can prevent these problems. That’s why most newborns in the United States are tested for hypothyroidism.

Surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid

When surgeons remove part of the thyroid, the remaining part may produce normal amounts of thyroid hormone. But some people who have this surgery may develop hypothyroidism. Removing the entire thyroid always results in hypothyroidism.

Surgeons may remove part or all of the thyroid as a treatment for

hyperthyroidism a large goiter thyroid nodules, which are noncancerous tumors or lumps in the thyroid that can produce too much thyroid hooc môn

Radiation treatment of the thyroid

Radioactive iodine, a common treatment for hyperthyroidism, gradually destroys thyroid cells. If you receive radioactive iodine treatment, you probably will eventually develop hypothyroidism. Doctors also treat people who have head or neck cancers with external radiation therapy, which can also damage the thyroid if it is included in the treatment.


Some medicines can interfere with thyroid hormone production and lead lớn hypothyroidism, including certain

heart medicines cancer medicines

Several recently developed cancer medicines, in particular, can either affect the thyroid directly or affect it indirectly by damaging the pituitary gland.

How bởi vì doctors diagnose hypothyroidism?

A blood thử nghiệm might confirm a diagnosis of hypothyroidism.

Your doctor will take your medical history và perform a physical exam. A hypothyroidism diagnosis can’t be based on symptoms alone because many of its symptoms are the same as those of other diseases.1 That’s why your doctor may use several thyroid blood tests and imaging teststo confirm the diagnosis và find its cause.

Because hypothyroidism can cause fertility problems, women who have trouble getting pregnant often get tested for thyroid problems.

How vày doctors treat hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is treated by replacing the hormonesthat your own thyroid can no longer make. You will take levothyroxine, a thyroid hormone medicine identical to lớn a hormone a healthy thyroid makes.3 Usually prescribed in pill form, this medicine is also available as a liquid & as a soft gel capsule. These newer formulas may help people with digestive problems to absorb the thyroid hormone. Your doctor may recommend taking the medicine in the morning before eating.

Your doctor will give you a blood demo about 6 lớn 8 weeks after you begin taking the medicine, adjusting your dose if needed. Each time your dose is adjusted, you’ll have another blood test. Once you’ve reached a dose that’s working for you, your doctor will probably repeat the blood thử nghiệm in 6 months & then once a year.

Your hypothyroidism most likely can be completely controlled with thyroid hormone medicine, as long as you take the recommended dose as instructed. Never stop taking your medicine without talking with your doctor first. Taking too much thyroid hooc môn medicine can cause serious problems, such as atrial fibrillation or osteoporosis.1

How does eating, diet, and nutrition affect hypothyroidism?

Your thyroid uses iodine khổng lồ make thyroid hormones. However, if you have Hashimoto’s diseaseor other types of autoimmunethyroid disorders, you may be sensitive to lớn iodine’s harmful side effects. Eating foods that have large amounts of iodine—such as kelp, dulse, or other kinds of seaweed—may cause or worsen hypothyroidism. Taking iodine supplements can have the same effect.

Talk with members of your health care team

about what foods to limit or avoid if you take iodine supplements about any cough syrups you take because they may contain iodine

If you are pregnant, you need more iodine because the baby gets iodine from your diet. Talk with your doctor about how much iodine you need.

Clinical Trials for Hypothyroidism

The NIDDK conducts và supports clinical trials in many diseases & conditions, including endocrine diseases. The trials look to lớn find new ways khổng lồ prevent, detect, or treat disease & improve quality of life.

What are clinical trials for hypothyroidism?

Clinical trials—and other types of clinical studies—are part of medical research và involve people like you. When you volunteer lớn take part in a clinical study, you help doctors và researchers learn more about disease & improve health care for people in the future.

Researchers are studying many aspects of hypothyroidism, such as

understanding how the disease progresses, its clinical presentation, và genetics investigating how effective and safe levothyroxine is for people with chronic kidney disease

Find out if clinical studies are right for you.

Watch a video of NIDDK Director Dr. Griffin p. Rodgers explaining the importance of participating in clinical trials.

What clinical studies for hypothyroidism are looking for participants?

You can view a filtered các mục of clinical studies on hypothyroidism that are xuất hiện and recruiting at www.Clinical
Trials.gov. You can expand or narrow the danh mục to include clinical studies from industry, universities, và individuals; however, the National Institutes of Health does not review these studies & cannot ensure they are safe. Always talk with your health care provider before you participate in a clinical study.


<1> Patil N, Rehman A, Jialal I. Hypothyroidism. In: Stat
. Stat
Pearls Publishing; 2020. Updated August 10, 2020. Accessed January 5, 2021. Www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519536

<2> Pearce EN, Farwell AP, Braverman LE. Thyroiditis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348(26):2646–2655. Doi: 10.1056/NEJMra021194. Erratum in: New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;349(6):620. Www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMra021194

<3> Jonklaas J, Bianco AC, Bauer AJ, et al; American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid hormone Replacement. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid hooc môn Replacement. Thyroid. 2014;24(12):1670–1751. Doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0028

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive và Kidney Diseases(NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates và disseminates research findings to lớn increase knowledge & understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, và the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

The NIDDK would like to thank:Thanh D. Hoang, D.O., FACP, FACE, CAPTAIN (select), Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, & Henry B. Burch, M.D., Program Director, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, và Metabolic Diseases, NIDDK

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English Honeydew Chapter 10 The Great Stone Face II are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English Honeydew Chapter 10 The Great Stone Face II.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English Honeydew Chapter 10 The Great Stone Face II


Read the following extracts and answer the questions that follow choosing the correct options among the given ones :

I. Unsought for, undesired, had come the fame which so many seek. He had become famous beyond the limits of the valley. College professors, and even the active men of cities, came from far lớn see and converse with Ernest, (Page 133)

Multiple Choice Questions1. What is it that many seek ?(a) health(b) wealth(c) fame(d) love.

2. Ernest had become famous for his (a) health(b) wisdom(c) wealth(d) love.

3. The phrase ‘unsought for’ means (a) hated(b) undesired(c) loved(d) unasked.

Answers 1. (c) fame2. (b) wisdom3. (d) unasked

II. “Because,” replied Ernest, “all through life I have awaited the fulfillment of a prophecy, và when I read these poems, I hoped that it might be fulfilled in you.” (Page 134)

Multiple Choice Questions 1. Ernest was talking to(a) his mother(b) a poet(c) a neighbour(d) General Blood-and-Thunder.

2. The prophecy concerned (a) himself(b) his mother(c) the poet(d) The Great Stone Face.

3. Ernest had expected that the poet’s face would resemble(a) his own face(b) Gathergold(c) The Great Stone Face(d) his mother’s face.

Answers:1. (b) a poet2. (d) The Great Stone Face3. (c) The Great Stone Face

III. The prophecy was fulfilled. But Ernest, having finished what he had lớn say, took the poet’s arm, và walked slowly homeward, still hoping that some wiser và better man than himself would by and by appear, bearing a resemblance to the Great Stone Face. (Page 136)

Multiple Choice Questions1. The prophecy was fulfilled in(a) the poet(b) Ernest(c) Gathergold(d) General Blood-and-Thunder.

2. Ernest believed the prophecy(a) was yet to lớn be fulfilled(b) was now fulfilled(c) will never be fulfilled(d) was fulfilled long ago.

3. The story is written by(a) Nathaniel Hawthorne(b) John Keats(c) Ruskin Bond(d) Zulfikar Ghose.

Answers1. (b) Ernest2. (a) was yet lớn be fulfilled3. (a) Nathaniel Hawthorne


COMPREHENSION check (Page 136)

Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against each of the following statements.1. Ernest’s words reminded people of the wise old sayings.___2. Total strangers from far away, who visited Ernest in the valley, found his face familiar.___3. The Great Stone Face confirmed Ernest’s view that the poet could be worthy of its like-ness. ___4. When Ernest và the poet met, they respected và admired each other equally.___5. The poet along with Ernest addressed the inhabitants of the valley.___6. The poet realised that Ernest’s thoughts were far nobler than his own verses.___

Answers1. True2. True3. False4. True5. False6. True


Answer the following questions.Question. 1.How was Ernest different from others in the valley ?

Answer:There were thousands of inhabitants in the valley. Ernest was good và simple hearted. He did noble deeds every day. He was a humble & thoughtful person. He had wise thoughts in his mind. He became famous throughout the world. In this way, he was different from others in the valley.

Question. 2.Why did Ernest think the poet was lượt thích the Stone Face ?

Answer:The poet wrote songs with lofty thoughts. While he was talking lớn Ernest, he looked wise, gentle and kind. Even the Great Stone Face appeared bending forward to lớn listen lớn his talk. The Stone Face even looked kindly at the poet, though he was a complete stranger. Therefore, Ernest thought the poet was lượt thích the Stone Face.

Question. 3.What did the poet himself say about his thoughts và poems ?

Answer:The poet said that his thoughts contained the distant voice of a heavenly song. However, his life had been different from his poems. He himself lacked faith in his dreamy thoughts.

Question. 4.What made the poet proclaim Ernest was the Stone Face ?

Answer:Through Ernest’s speech, the poet judged his greatness. He felt that Ernest’s life & character were a nobler kind of poetry.

Moreover, Ernest’s trắng hair looked lượt thích the Great Stone Face surrounded by white clouds. Ernest’s face also assumed a grand expression. It moved the poet’s heart. It also made him proclaim Ernest as the Stone Face.

Question. 5.Write ‘Ernest’ or ‘Poet’, against each statement below :(i) There was a gap between his life and his words.(ii) His words had the power nguồn of truth as they agreed with his thoughts.(iii) His words were as soothing as a heavenly tuy nhiên but only as useful as a vague dream.(iv) His thoughts were worthy.(v) Whatever he said was truth itself.(vi) His poems were noble.(viii) His life was nobler than all the poems.(viii) He lacked faith in his own thoughts.(ix) His thoughts had nguồn as they agreed with the life he lived.(x) Greatness lies in truth. Truth is best expressed in one’s actions. He was truthful, therefore he was great.

Answer:(i) Poet(ii) Ernest(iii) Poet(iv) Poet(v) Ernest(vi) Poet(vii) Ernest(viii) Poet(ix) Ernest(x) Ernest.

Question. 6.(i) Who, by common consent, turned out to be like the Great Stone Face ?(ii) Did Ernest believe that the old prophecy had come true ? What did he say about it ?

Answer:(i) By common consent, Ernest turned out khổng lồ be like the Great Stone Face.(ii) No, Ernest did not believe that the old prophecy had come true. He still hoped, that some day, some man, wiser & better than himself would appear. He would bear a likeness lớn the Great Stone Face.

WORKING WITH LANGUAGE (Page 137)1. Mark the meaning that best fits the word or a phrase in the story.(i) (sun) going down(a) becoming smaller(b) weakening(c) setting

(ii) brightening(a) making (it) look bright and cheerful(b) lending (it) a special glow(c) causing (it) to lớn appear hopeful

(iii) spacious(a) lonely and wild(b) big & wide(c) special và important

(iv) prophecy(a) proverb(b) prediction(c) rumour

(v) marvellous(a) wonderful(b) surprising(c) shocking

(vi) proclaim(а) reveal(b) declare(c) shout

(vii) cease(a) happen(b) stop(c) remain

(viii) (a night’s) shelter(a) stay(b) safety(c) hospitality

(ix) gazed(a) wandered about(b) stared at(c) thought of

(x) took on (an expression)(a) challenged(b) resembled(c) assumed

Answers(i) —> (c)(ii) —> (b)(iii) —> (b)(iv) —> (b)(v) —> (a)(vi) —> (b)(vii) —> (b)(viii) —> (a)(ix) —> (b)(x) —> (c).

2. (i) Read the following sentences.(a) I bởi vì hope I’ll live khổng lồ see him.(b) He will come! Fear not, Ernest; the man will come.(c) Gathergold is arriving tomorrow, people said.(d) Blood-and-Thunder starts his journey back lớn the valley next week, everyone proclaimed.(e) The great man is going to spend his old age in his native town.

Notice that in the above sentences, verbs in bold type are in four different forms, denoting four important ways of expressing future time. None of these can be said khổng lồ be exclusively used to lớn show future time, though each is used lớn refer lớn some action in future.

(ii) Which size of the verb is more natural in these sentences ? Encircle your choice.(a) I’m not miễn phí this evening. I will work/am working on a project.(b) Have you decided where you will go for your higher secondary ? Yes. I have. I will go/am going khổng lồ the Kendriya Vidyalaya.(c) Don’t worry about the dog. It won’t hurt/isn’t hurting you.(d) The weatherman has predicted that it will snow/’I’ is snowing in Ranikhet tonight.(e) Swapna can’t go out this evening. Her father will come/is coming khổng lồ see her.

Answers(i) vị yourself.


Question 3.(i) Complete these pieces of conversation using will or going to with the verbs given(a) Rani : Why are you turning on the radio ?Ravi : I___(listen) lớn the news.(b) Rani : Oh, I can’t buy this book. I have no money.Ravi : Don’t worry. I___(lend) you some.(c) Rani : Look at those dark clouds.Ravi : I think it__(rain).(d) Rani : What shall we have for dinner ?Ravi : I can’t decide.Rani : hóa trang your mind.Ravi : All right, then. We___(have) fried rice and dry beans.(e) Rani : Why are you filling the kettle with water ?Ravi : I___(make) coffee.(f) Rani : We need some bread và butter for breakfast.Ravi : All right. I___(go) to lớn the bakery & get some.(Before he goes out, Ravi talks lớn their father.)Ravi : I__(get) some bread & butter. Vì chưng you want any thing from the bakery ?Father : Yes, I want some salt biscuits.Ravi : Fine, I___(get) you a packet.

(ii) Let pairs of children take turns to lớn speak aloud the dialogues.

Answers(i) (a) am going to lớn listen(b) will lend(c) is going to(d) will have(e) am going lớn make(f) will go, am going to lớn get, will get

(ii) vày yourself.

SPEAKING & WRITINGQuestion 1.Each of the following words has the sound / f / as in feel. The words on the left have it initially. Those on the right have it finally. Speak each word clearly.


AnswerDo yourself.

Question 2.Underline the letter or letters representing / f / in each of the following words.


Question 3.Imagine that you are the poet. You have come lớn your native valley khổng lồ meet a famous preacher called Ernest. Narrate the incident of your first meeting with him.

AnswerMeeting ErnestIt was a summer evening. I arrived at Ernest’s door. I found him reading a book. Between his readings, I found him looking lovingly at the Great Stone Face. I greeted him. Then I asked for a night’s shelter. He gladly agreed khổng lồ grant me that. Then he said that the Great Stone Face was looking very hospitably at me.

I sat beside him. We talked for a long time. Never before, I had met so wise và gentle and kind a person. Then suddenly, he gazed into my eyes, called me gifted và asked who I was. I pointed to lớn the book in his hand. I said that I was the one who wrote that book. I felt that he was now comparing my features lớn those of the Great Stone Face. It made him sad because he did not find the desired resemblance. I told him that I was not worthy of that likeness. Ernest asked, “Why not ?” I told him that my life did not correspond with my thoughts. Ernest’s eyes were full of tears.

At the hour of sunset, he took me to a place. Here he spoke to lớn a group of neighbours in the mở cửa air. While listening to lớn Ernest, I felt that I had before me the worthiest sage.

As I looked at the Great Stone Face. I couldn’t help shouting, “Behold ! Behold ! Ernest is himself the likeness of the Great Stone Face !”

All the people there looked & saw that what I said was true. The prophecy was fulfilled. Ernest however, was too humble to believe it.

Question 4.(i) Put each of the following in the correct order khổng lồ construct sentences.• a resident of Noida near Delhi,/is visually impaired/George Abraham,__________________________________________________• confidence and competitive spirit/and infuses discipline among the participants/ It provides__________________________________________________• he has helped/The brain behind the World Cup Cricket,/the disabled khổng lồ dream__________________________________________________• to lớn the blind school in Delhi/It was a chance visit/that changed his life___________________________________________________• sport is a powerful tool/the disabled/He believes that/for rehabilitation of___________________________________________________(ii) Now rearrange the sentences above to lớn construct a paragraph.George Abraham,_____________________________________

Answers(i) • George Abraham, a resident of Noida near Delhi, is visually impaired.• It provides confidence & competitive spirit và infuses discipline among the participants.• The brain behind the World Cup Cricket, he has helped the disabled to lớn dream.• It was a chance visit to the blind school in Delhi that changed his life.• He believes that sport is a powerful tool for rehabilitation of the disabled.

(ii) George Abraham, a resident of Noida near Delhi, is visually impaired. The brain behind the World Cup Cricket, he has helped the disabled to lớn dream. It was a chance visit to the blind school in Delhi that changed his life. He believes that thể thao is a powerful tool for rehabilitation of the disabled. It provides confidence and competitive spirit và infuses discipline among the participants.

Xem thêm: Những Thành Tựu Khoa Học Kỹ Thuật Của Người Hy Lạp La Mã Cổ Đại Có Ý Nghĩa Như Thế Nào

We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English Honeydew Chapter 10 The Great Stone Face II help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English Honeydew Chapter 10 The Great Stone Face II, drop a comment below & we will get back to lớn you at the earliest.