màu xanh coban

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Cobalt blue

A sample of a commercial cobalt xanh rì pigment

About these coordinates     Màu sắc coordinates
Hex triplet#0047AB
sRGBB (r, g, b)(0, 71, 171)
HSV (h, s, v)(215°, 100%, 67%)
CIELChuv (L, C, h)(33, 82, 259°)
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid blue
B: Normalized vĩ đại [0–255] (byte)
Cobalt blue

CAS Number

  • 1345-16-0

3D model (JSmol)

  • Interactive image
  • 10653098
EC Number
  • 310-193-6

PubChem CID

  • 12888320


  • InChI=1S/2Al.Co.4O/q;;+2;;;2*-1



  • [O-][Al]=O.[O-][Al]=O.[Co+2]


Chemical formula

Molar mass 176.892 g·mol−1

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Infobox references

Cobalt blue is a xanh rì pigment made by sintering cobalt(II) oxide with aluminum(III) oxide (alumina) at 1200 °C. Chemically, cobalt xanh rì pigment is cobalt(II) oxide-aluminium oxide, or cobalt(II) aluminate, CoAl2O4. Cobalt xanh rì is lighter and less intense than thở the (iron-cyanide based) pigment Prussian xanh rì. It is extremely stable and historically has been used as a coloring agent in ceramics (especially Chinese porcelain), jewelry, and paint. Transparent glasses are tinted with the silica-based cobalt pigment "smalt".

Historical uses and production[edit]

Cobalt xanh rì in impure forms had long been used in Chinese porcelain.[1] The first recorded use of cobalt blue as a color name in English was in 1777.[2] It was independently discovered as a pure alumina-based pigment by Louis Jacques Thénard in 1802.[3] Commercial production began in France in 1807. The leading world manufacturer of cobalt xanh rì in the nineteenth century was Benjamin Wegner's Norwegian company Blaafarveværket ("blue colour works" in Dano-Norwegian). Germany also was famous for production of it, especially the xanh rì colour works (Blaufarbenwerke) in the Ore Mountains of Saxony.

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Cobalt glass is used decoratively, and also as an optical filter vĩ đại remove or hide certain visible colors.

In human culture[edit]


  • Cobalt xanh rì was the primary xanh rì pigment used for centuries in Chinese xanh rì and white porcelain, beginning in the late eighth or early ninth century.[4]
  • Traditional Bolesławiec pottery from Poland also makes an extensive use of cobalt xanh rì glaze. The pigment was used along with white in classic patterns of xanh rì and white dots before the synthetic production of more variously-colored pigments (yielding such colors as green, red, orange).
  • Watercolorist John Varley suggested cobalt xanh rì as a good substitution for ultramarine for painting skies, writing in his "List of Colours" from 1818: "Used as a substitute for ultramarine in its brightness of colour, and superior when used in skies and other objects, which require even tints; used occasionally in retrieving the brightness of those tints when too heavy, and for tints in drapery, etc. Capable, by its superior brilliancy and contrast, vĩ đại subdue the brightness of other blues."[5]
  • Cobalt xanh rì has been used in paintings since its discovery by Thénard, by painters such as J. M. W. Turner, Impressionists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet, and Post-Impressionists such as Vincent cầu xin Gogh.[6] It is stable and lightfast and also compatible with all other pigments.
  • Maxfield Parrish, partially famous for the intensity of his skyscapes, frequently used cobalt xanh rì, and as a result cobalt xanh rì sometimes is called Parrish blue.
  • Cobalt xanh rì is a commonly used color for interior decorating.[7]


  • Several xế hộp manufacturers including Jeep and Bugatti have cobalt xanh rì as paint options.


  • Because of its chemical stability in the presence of alkali, cobalt xanh rì is used as a pigment in xanh rì concrete.


  • Two Major League Soccer teams have cobalt xanh rì as a secondary color: Real Salt Lake from its inception,[8] and Sporting Kansas City on its trang chủ uniforms since 2008.[9]


  • Several countries including the Netherlands and Romania, and a U.S. state – Nevada – have cobalt xanh rì as one of three shades of their flags.

Video games

  • Sega's official logo color is cobalt xanh rì. Sonic the Hedgehog, Sega's current mascot, was colored vĩ đại match.[10]
  • An example of cobalt xanh rì hue (not pure cobalt blue)

    An example of cobalt xanh rì hue (not pure cobalt blue)

  • Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Boating on the Seine (La Yole), c. 1879

    Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Boating on the Seine (La Yole), c. 1879


Cobalt xanh rì is toxic when ingested or inhaled. Its use requires appropriate precautions vĩ đại avoid internal contamination and vĩ đại prevent cobalt poisoning.

Natural occurrence[edit]

A single record of the compound concerns inclusions in sapphires from a single site.[11]

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See also[edit]

  • RAL 5013 Cobalt blue
  • Lists of colors
  • List of inorganic pigments
  • Cobalt phosphate


  1. ^ Kerr, Rose; Wood, Nigel (2004), Science and Civilisation in Trung Quốc Volume 5. Part 12, Ceramic Technology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 658–692, ISBN 0-521-83833-9.
  2. ^ Maerz and Paul. A Dictionary of Color. Thành Phố New York (1930). McGraw-Hill. p. 91; Màu sắc Sample of Cobalt Blue: Page 131 Plate 34 Màu sắc Sample L7
  3. ^ Gehlen, A.F. (1803). "Ueber die Bereitung einer blauen Farbe aus Kobalt, die eben sánh schön ist wie Ultramarin. Vom Bürger Thenard". Neues Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Band 2. H. Frölich. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. German translation from Thénard, L.J. (1803), "Considérations générales sur les couleurs, suivies d'un procédé pour préparer une couleur bleue aussi belle que l'outremer" (PDF), Journal des Mines, 86: 128–136, archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-03-29.
  4. ^ "Chinese pottery: The Yuan dynasty (1206–1368)". Archived 2017-12-29 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed 7 June 2018.
  5. ^ ""J Varley's List of Colours". The British Museum. Archived from the original on 2016-09-20. Retrieved 2016-07-22.
  6. ^ "Cobalt blue". ColourLex. Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  7. ^ Cobalt Blue Is the Vibrant Shade You Need for 2023,[1]
  8. ^ "Real Salt Lake unveil new primary kit for 2018". MLSSoccer.com. February 8, 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  9. ^ "History". SportingKC.com. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  10. ^ Sheffield, Brandon. "Out of the Blue: Naoto Ohshima Speaks". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2013. Well, he's xanh rì because that's Sega's more-or-less official company color
  11. ^ "UM1994-06-O:AlCo".

Further reading[edit]

  • Roy, A. "Cobalt blue", in Artists' Pigments, Berrie, B. H., Ed., National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 2007
  • Wood, J.R. and Hsu Yi-Ting, 2019, An Archaeometallurgical Explanation for the Disappearance of Egyptian and Near Eastern Cobalt-Blue Glass at the over of the Late Bronze Age, Internet Archaeology 52, Internet Archaeology

External links[edit]

  • "History of Cobalt blue". Pigments through the Ages. WebExhibits.
  • Cobalt xanh rì ColourLex
  • An Archaeometallurgical Explanation for the Disappearance of Egyptian and Near Eastern Cobalt-Blue Glass at the over of the Late Bronze Age Internet Archaeology